Development of a Practical Method for Using Ozone Gas as a Virus Decontaminating Agent
The anti-viral and anti-microbial properties of ozone have been well documented, although the mechanisms of action are not well understood, and several macromole-cular targets could be involved (Carpendale and Freeberg, 1991; Wells et al., 1991; Khadre and Yousef, 2002; Shin and Sobsey, 2003; Cataldo, 2006; Lin and Wu, 2006; Lin et al., 2007). Aqueous solutions of ozone are in use as disinfectants in many commercial situations, including waste water treatment, laundries, and food processing (Kim et al., 1999; Shin and Sobsey, 2003; Naitou and Takahara, 2006, 2008; Cardis et al., 2007), but the use of the gas on a commercial scale as a decontamination device has not been exploited. Ozone gas however has a number of potential advantages over other decontaminating gases and liquid chemical applications (McDonnell and Russell, 1999; Barker et al., 2004).
Inactivation of Norovirus
Inactivation of Norovirus by ozone gas in conditions relevant to healthcare
We evaluated the ability of ozone gas to inactivate Norovirus and its animal surrogate feline calicivirus (FCV) in dried samples placed at various locations within a hotel room, a cruise liner cabin and an office. Norovirus was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay, and FCV by a combination of QRT-PCR and virus infectivity assays. We were able to reduce the concentration of infectious FCV by a factor of more than 103 , and in some cases beyond detection, under optimal conditions of ozone exposure with less than an hour of total operation. QRT-PCR assays indicated similar decreases in both viral RNAs. Virus-containing samples dried onto hard surfaces (plastic, steel and glass), and soft surfaces such as fabric, cotton and carpet, were equally vulnerable to the treatment. Our results show that Norovirus can be inactivated by exposure to ozone gas from a portable commercial generator in settings such as hotel rooms, cruise ship cabins and healthcare facilities.
On March 13, 2007, a series of experiments (Experiment 4) were run in Orlando FL to determine whether or not the Vapex fog could kill MRSA – inoculated stainless steel coupons.
The previous owner of Vapex paid a company to inoculate his warehouse with a large amount of MRSA.The study showed that at a 4 ppm concentration for 15 minutes all of the MRSA had been killed. MRSA is a bacteria, and viruses are much easier to kill than bacteria.